Diseases of the letter "C"

Cardiac rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive exercise, education, and behavioral modification program designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of patients with heart disease.

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Cerumen impaction

Cerumen impaction develops when earwax accumulates in the inner part of the ear canal and blocks the eardrum. It affects between 2% and 6% of the general population in the United States.

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Cesarean section

Cesarean sections, also called c-sections or cesarean deliveries, are performed whenever abnormal conditions complicate labor and vaginal delivery, threatening the life or health of the mother or the baby.

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Cluster headache

Cluster headaches are characterized by an intense one-sided pain centered by the eye or temple. The pain lasts for one to two hours on average and may recur several times in a day.

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Carcinoembryonic antigen test

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test is a laboratory blood study. CEA is a substance that is normally found only during fetal development, but may reappear in adults who develop certain types of cancer. CEA is produced when there is rapid multiplication of epithelial cells such as those of the digestive track. CEA is also found in the blood of individuals who are chronic smokers.

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Candidiasis

Candidiasis is an infection caused by a species of the yeast Candida, usually Candida albicans. This is a common cause of vaginal infections in women. Also, Candida may cause mouth infections in people with reduced immune function, or in patients taking certain antibiotics.

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Cataracts

A cataract is a cloudiness or opacity in the normally transparent crystalline lens of the eye. This cloudiness can cause a decrease in vision and may lead to eventual blindness.

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Catatonia

Catatonia is a condition marked by changes in muscle tone or activity associated with a large number of serious mental and physical illnesses. There are two distinct sets of symptoms that are characteristic of this condition.

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Cellulitis

The word "cellulitis" actually means "inflammation of the cells." Specifically, cellulitis refers to an infection of the tissue just below the skin surface. In humans, the skin and the tissues under the skin are the most common locations for microbial infection.

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Cardiac tamponade

The heart is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. When this sac becomes filled with fluid, the liquid presses on the heart, preventing the lower chambers of the heart from properly filling with blood.

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Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is a procedure performed to remove a cloudy (natural) lens from the eye; usually an intraocular (artificial) lens is implanted at the same time. The removed lens, sometimes also called a crystalline lens, is called a cataract because the originally clear lens has turned cloudy.

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Catheter ablation

Catheter ablation of an irregular heartbeat involves having a tube (a catheter) inserted into the heart through which electrical energy is sent to either reset the heartbeat or stop the heart from beating so a mechanical pacemaker can be put in place.

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Chest x ray

A chest x ray is a procedure used to evaluate organs and structures within the chest for symptoms of disease. Chest x rays include views of the lungs, heart, small portions of the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid gland, and the bones of the chest area.

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The acute form of the disease gets its name froman outbreak that occurred in 1871 near La Oroya, Peru. More than 7,000 people perished. Some survivors later developed a skin disease, called verruga peruana (Peruvian warts). These skin lesions were observed prior to the 1871 outbreak-perhaps as far back as the pre-Columbian era-but a connection to Oroya fever was unknown. In 1885, a young medical researcher, Daniel Carrion, inoculated himself with blood from a lesion to study the course of the skin disease. When he became ill with Oroya fever, the connection became apparent. Oroya fever is often called Carrion's disease in honor of his fatal experiment.

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