Diseases of the letter "A"

Abdominal ultrasound

Ultrasound technology allows doctors to "see" inside a patient without resorting to surgery. A transmitter sends high frequency sound waves into the body, where they bounce off the different tissues and organs to produce a distinctive pattern of echoes.

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Abdominal wall defects

Abdominal wall defects are birth (congenital) defects that allow the stomach or intestines to protrude. It occurs when a child's abdomen does not develop fully while in the womb. This allows the intestine to develop outside the abdomen.

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Abortion, selective

Selective abortion, also known as selective reduction, refers to choosing to abort a fetus, typically in a multi-fetal pregnancy, to decrease the health risks to the mother in carrying and giving birth to more than one or two babies, and also to decrease

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Abortion, therapeutic

An abortion may be performed whenever there is some compelling reason to end a pregnancy. Women have abortions because continuing the pregnancy would cause them hardship, endanger their life or health, or because prenatal testing has shown that the fetus

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Abortion, partial birth

Partial birth abortion, or IDX, is performed to end a pregnancy in the mid to late second trimester. It is typically performed between weeks 19 and 26 of pregnancy. IDX is highly controversial. Some physicians argue that IDX has advantages that make it preferable to other late-term abortion procedures in some circumstances.

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Abscess

There are two types of abscesses, septic and sterile. Most abscesses are septic, which means that they are the result of an infection. Septic abscesses can occur anywhere in the body.Only a germ and the body's immuneresponse are required. In response to the invading germ,

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Achalasia

Achalasia affects the esophagus, the tube that carries swallowed food from the back of the throat down into the stomach. A ring of muscle called the lower esophageal sphincter encircles the esophagus just above the entrance to the stomach. This sphincter muscle is normally contracted to close the esophagus.

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Acne

Acne originates in the oil or sebaceous glands that lie just beneath the surface of the skin, within the hair follicles. These glands produce an oil called sebum-the skin's natural moisturizer-which also helps preserve the flexibility of the hair.

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Albinism

Albinism is an inherited condition present at birth, characterized by a lack of pigment that normally gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. Many types of albinism exist, all of which involve lack of pigment in varying degrees. The condition, which is found in all races, may be accompanied by eye problems and may lead to skin cancer later in life.

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Amnesia

Amnesia refers to the loss of memory. Memory loss may result from two-sided (bilateral) damage to parts of the brain vital for memory storage, processing, or recall (the limbic system, including the hippocampus in the medial temporal lobe).

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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is an uncommon form of cancer affecting the anus. The anus is the inch-and-a-halflong end portion of the large intestine, which opens to allow solid wastes to exit the body. Other parts of the large intestine include the colon and the rectum.

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Aphasia

Aphasia is condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words. A person with aphasia may have difficulty speaking, reading, writing, recognizing the names of objects, or understanding what other people have said.

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Arthroscopic surgery

Arthroscopic surgery is a procedure to visualize, diagnose, and treat joint problems. The name is derived from the Greek words arthron, which means joint, and skopein, which means to look at.

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Athletes foot

A common fungus infection between the toes in which the skin becomes itchy and sore, cracking and peeling away. Athlete's foot (also known as tinea pedis or foot ringworm) can be treated, but it can be tenacious and difficult to clear up completely.

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