Gametes evolved to different sizes. Females by definition are the sex that produces larger gametes. Once they’ve deposited their smaller gametes, males are in the advantageous position to limit energetic input (e.g., leave). The females are then left with the decision to raise offspring or not, and this decision has important energetic implications. But males also have one evolutionary uncertainty to overcome: the certainty of paternity.
If males release millions of sperm and can father multiple litters within a single reproductive season (by breeding with several females), the certainty of paternity is seldom assured, and the uncertainty of paternity may well be the greatest challenge that mammalian males face when it comes to reproduction. Not surprisingly, a myriad of adaptations has evolved to overcome this uncertainty-
Also, if there are fights to prevent other males from mating, these males will fight to overcome barriers put in place by previous males. One could argue that when males fight, females ultimately win because whichever male succeeds probably has better genes or the kind of genes that will enable her male progeny (i.e., son) to produce more children (i.e., increased fitness).
Mate guarding and defense following mating is a simple way for a male to reduce the odds of another male copulating with a female. However, the trade-
Other strategies also exist for males to ensure paternity. In some species of primates such as the Senegal bush baby (Galago senegalensis) or ring-
In many species of rodents such as brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), primates, or bats, some of the seminal fluids will form a copulatory plug. This plug is formed soon after copulation and it appears that its main function is to prevent leakage of sperm from the female reproductive tract following copulation. The longer the sperm stays inside the female, the better the odds of fertilization by maximizing the amount of sperm and hence number of sperm cells active in the female tract. Interestingly, the tip of the penis (the glans) is used by males to remove sperm plugs deposited by other males.