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Classification of locomotives

Historical Development of the Locomotive

In order that a clear understanding may be had of the various types of locomotives, a classification is given according to wheel arrangement. In the Whyte system of classification, which is quite largely used, each set of trucks and driving wheels is grouped by number beginning at the pilot or front end of the engine. Thus, 260 means a Mogul, and 460, a 10-wheel engine. The first figure, 2, in 260 denotes that a 2-wheeled truck is used in front; the figure 6, that there are six coupled drivers, three on each side; and the 0, that no trailing truck is used. This scheme gives both a convenient and easy method of classifying locomotives.

Figure 1. Clasification of Locomotives

In Table Figure 1. (left-above), is given the classification of the locomotives used on American railroads.

The method may be further extended to include the weights of locomotives. The total weight is expressed in units of 1,000 pounds. Thus: A Pacific locomotive weighing 189,000 pounds would be classified as Type 462-189. If the locomotive is a compound, a letter C would be used instead of the dash. Thus: Type 462-C-189. If tanks are used instead of a separate tender, the letter T would be substituted for the dash. Thus: A tank locomotive having four driving wheels, a 4-wheelleading truck, and a 4-wheel rear truck, weighing 114,000 pounds would be classified as Type 444-T-114.

From the classification table given, it is apparent that there are a great many different types of locomotives in service. Only the more commonly used types will be discussed, which are as follows: 040, 060, 080, 260, 280, 440, 442, 460, and 462. The types 040, 060, and 080 are largely used for switching service. The 040 type is of the smallest proportions and weights, being found in small yards where only light work is required. The call for heavy duty was met by the 060 type. The fact that the 060 type, being much heavier, has a greater tractive effort and a correspondingly larger steaming capacity, has caused them to be used very extensively. The following figures will aid in giving an idea of their size and capacity:

Weight on drivers (pounds). .... ............................145,000 to 170,000
Diameter of cylinders (inches). ......................................19 to 22
Stroke of piston (inches). ..............................................24 to 26
Diameter of driving wheels (inches). ..............................50 to 56
Working steam pressure (pounds per square inch)........180 to 200

The demand for power, steadily increasing beyond that which could be secured by locomotives of the 060 type, created a new design known as the 8-wheel, or 080 type.

This type is used in switching and pushing service and has about 171,000 pounds weight on drivers, cylinders 21 inches in diameter, stroke 28 inches, drivers 51 inches in diameter, and carries 175 to 200 pounds steam pressure. The switching engines of the 060 and 080 type were converted into high class freight engines by adding two wheel trucks to each, thus developing the 260, or Mogul, and the 280, or Consolidation types.

The Mogul was primarily intended for freight service only, but it is sometimes used in heavy passenger service. The object of the design was to obtain greater tractive force on driving wheels than is possible to obtain with four drivers, as in the 440 type. Fig. 2 illustrates a modern 260, or Mogul type, giving its principal dimensions. This type was more generally used than any other before the increasing requirements of heavy freight service resulted in the development of the 280, or Consolidation type. It is profitable from the standpoint of economy in repairs in selecting the type of locomotive for any service, to use the minimum number of drive wheels possible within the limits of the necessary tractive power, although for freight service involving the handling of heavy trains on steep grades, the 280, or Consolidation type, is required. Where the requirements are not too severe, however, there is a large field for the Mogul type in freight service. Where a large axle load is permitted, the Mogul type may give sufficient hauling capacity to meet ordinary requirements in freight service on comparatively level roads. While not generally recommended for what may be called fast freight service, the 280, or Consolidation type, is sometimes used. Many Mogul locomotives are successfully handling such trains.

The 260 type provides a two-wheel leading truck with good guiding qualities and places a large percentage of the total weight on the driving wheels. A large number of locomotives of this type show an average of 87½ per cent of the total weight of the locomotive on the drivers. Boilers with sufficient capacity for moderate speed may be provided in this type; and with relatively small diameters of driving wheels, it will lend itself readily to wide variations in grates and fireboxes.

Figure 2. Modern 260, or Mogul Type of locomotive

Figure 2. (above) Modern 260, or Mogul Type of locomotive
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