Physical characteristics Struthioniformes -

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Physical characteristics Struthioniformes

Birds > Group of birds > Struthioniformes

The basic characteristics of the ratite group include the following: degenerated breast muscles, lack of a keel of the sternum, an almost absent wishbone (furcula), a simplified wing skeleton and musculature, strong legs, leg bones without air chambers except in the femur, flight and tail feathers that have retrogressed or have been converted to decorative plumes, and a loss of feather vanes, which means that oiling the plumage is not necessary, and as a result there is no preen gland.
There is also no separation of skin bearing contour feathers, or feather tracts (pterylae), and the area of skin devoid of contour feathers (apteria). Ratites have a palaeognathous (meaning “old jaw”) palate which is found in no other bird groups except the tinamous, which are considered to be the closest phylogenetically to the ratites and probably evolved from a common ancestor.
Ostriches show the greatest dimorphism with males being generally black with white plumes and the females being brown instead of black.


Rheas show some dichromatism during the breeding season when the males’ color grows darker black and their posture also changes. Emus have little dimorphism except the males are usually a little larger than females and their posture during the breeding season can be used to identify the sex. Cassowaries are dimorphic in size with the females being larger and more aggressive than the males. Kiwis have little dimorphism other than a small size difference.

While ratites share features such as the strong development of feather aftershafts that are often nearly as large as the main shaft, there are also many differences between families and species as well. Ostriches have their toe number reduced to two, and one is much more prominent than the other. Ostriches are also the tallest and heaviest of modern ratites.

Cassowaries have developed long inner toenails that can be used defensively. While the largest cassowaries can weigh almost as much as some ostriches, they are not nearly as tall. Ostriches and rheas both have prominent wings, which, along with flight feathers, play a significant role in courtship displays. They also use their wings in distracting displays and maneuvers to evade predators or draw them away from their nests. These behaviorisms are shared with a number of ground-nesting birds that can fly, which also probably suggests their ancestry among flying birds.

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