More than 70% of an albatross’ life is spent on or over the ocean, while foraging, migrating, or resting. With the exception of the waved albatross, albatrosses avoid the relatively windless tropical doldrums. Though ranging widely at sea from breeding islands and during non-breeding time, significant differences in distribution can occur within and between species or between sexes. Some species are found to forage locally over continental shelves, while others roam widely to obtain food. Significant concentrations of birds can be found in areas of ocean richness near major currents, gyres and upwellings around South America (e.g. Humbolt current), Australia, New Zealand, South Africa (Benguela current) and in the north Pacific (Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska). The remaining time is spent ashore at the usually windswept, remote island breeding locations for courtship, nesting and chick rearing. Diomedea species are more commonly found on grassy slopes or plains where nests are often far apart, and rebuilt each nesting attempt, but located within sight of neighbors. The northern royal albatross uses the flat scrubby tops of small rocky islets, while Phoebetria species are usually widely spaced along steep grassy slopes and cliff ledges.