Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra. Scottish race, considered by some authorities to be race of Parrot Crossbill, L. pytyopsittacus, is resident, confined to central Highlands; typical race ‘irrupts', then becomes resident, breeding locally East Anglia, Hampshire, perhaps Surrey; has bred in many English and Irish counties. Found in open fir woods, especially Scots pines.
DESCRIPTION: 6 1/2 inches. Sexes differ. Young males orange-
VOICE: Ringingchip chip call, often repeated several times, is louder than similar calls of 12 and 31 and identifies Hying parties. Querulous call from perch tukay, tukayo lengthens into usual song.
HABITS: Allows close approach when feeding on trees (cones) or fruiting bushes; only abnormally on ground or when drinking. Parties when feeding resemble small parrots. Song flights in spring. Social at all times. MAY BE CONFUSED with II, 12, 19.